A dog’s medical history consists of a history of her life, symptoms and the actual diagnosis. The veterinarian then prescribes treatment. Based on its effectiveness, a forecast can be made. The breeder should know the first symptoms of dog diseases in order to respond in a timely manner to the pet’s poor health, to deliver it to the veterinary clinic on time. Some pathologies develop rapidly, the owner does not have time to think over the situation, to study veterinary reference books.
What diseases of dogs are there?
The general classification of diseases consists of infectious and non-infectious pathologies. Infectious diseases of dogs are dangerous not only for canines (zoonoses), but can be transmitted to humans (zooanthroponoses) or representatives of other animal species. Non-infectious diseases of dogs are not dangerous to others, but can be fatal to the pets themselves.
The vastness of the disease presupposes no less number of symptoms that are specific and nonspecific. In the first case, the disease of dogs can be established much faster than with the manifestation of signs similar to many pathologies. In any case, when the first symptoms of malaise appear, you need to call the veterinarian at home, or deliver the pet to the veterinary clinic.
Important! You cannot sit and wait that “everything will pass by itself.” Symptoms of some pathologies develop so quickly that the breeder and the doctor have only 1-3 hours in stock (note: stomach volvulus).
Diseases of dogs and their signs
When individual organs and systems are damaged, symptoms appear that indicate that the disease belongs to one or another part of the body. Knowing the first symptoms of diseases helps the breeder to orientate faster, provide first aid to the pet, or deliver it to the veterinary clinic in a timely manner.
Diseases of dogs by location and symptoms
Diseases of the respiratory system are characterized by a number of specific signs that require close attention and treatment.
Reflex exhalation, sharp, sometimes exhausting. Thus, the dog’s body tries to get rid of mucus, foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. Distinguish: deep, superficial, dry, wet. It proceeds in acute, chronic forms. Etiology: respiratory diseases (tracheitis, asthma, helminths, tumors), lung diseases (edema, pleurisy, pneumonia), heart disease (left ventricular failure). Cough is more often diagnosed in dogs with pneumonia, tracheobronchitis.
- Nose bleed.
Scarlet blood flows out of the nostrils, does not foam. Causes: traumatic injury, hypertension, bacterial infection, viruses, parasitic diseases, hemorrhagic diathesis. Dogs are more likely to be diagnosed with infections and injuries.
In the sputum, streaks of blood or red foam are found. In severe cases, a stream of blood is released from the mouth. Causes: trauma, low blood clotting, tumors, thromboembolism, abscess, pulmonary edema and infarction, bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis, abscess, pneumonia are diagnosed more often.
Dyspnoea, difficulty breathing, increased inspiratory (inspiratory) and expiratory (expiratory), sometimes mixed. Causes: low oxygen concentration in the blood, hyperthermia, central nervous system diseases, pain. Diagnosed with hyperthermia, hypocalcemic tetany, compression of the throat with a collar, pneumonia, encephalitis.
- Runny nose, sneezing.
When sneezing, a sharp release of air occurs, a reflex symptom aimed at freeing the nose. With a cold, a different form of exudate is observed (from mucous to purulent). Causes: irritation of the nasal mucosa. There are bacterial, viral infections (plague, adenovirosis), pneumonia, injuries, mycoses, a foreign body.
Digestive system diseases
They are characterized by damage to the digestive tract in a dog, symptoms indicate a violation of feeding, trauma, infectious pathologies.
Swallowing disorder is observed, it happens with a foreign body in the pharynx or mouth, obstruction of the esophagus, narrowing of hollow structures, achalasia, rabies, diverticula.
Violation of the process of defecation, prolonged absence of feces. Causes: foreign body, intestinal atony, narrowing of hollow structures, trauma, intussusception, poisoning with salts of heavy metals, tumors, coprolites. It happens when feeding with bones, with wounds of the anus and painful bowel movements, inflammation of the paraanal glands.
- Blood in the stool.
Distinguish between impurities in feces or outflow from the anus. A dark color of stool indicates the presence of bleeding closer to the stomach, bright blotches of blood indicate a close source of bleeding. Red feces with diarrhea occurs regardless of the proximity of the focus of blood outflow. Reasons: parvovirus, leptospirosis, adenovirosis, helminths, poisoning, lack of vitamins K, C, hemorrhoids. More often it happens with allergies, parvovirus enteritis.
- Acute and chronic diarrhea.
In the acute form, it lasts up to 2 weeks, is characterized by increased peristalsis, decreased absorption of fluid in the intestine, increased moisture secretion. Acute diarrhea, causes: pancreatitis, non-specific enteritis, parvovirus, plague, rotavirus, staphylococcosis, helminths, organophosphate poisoning.
In a chronic form, liquid feces are released for more than 2 weeks, it happens with gastritis, enteritis, chronic colitis, uremia, dysbiosis, dyskinesia, helminthiasis.
- Vomiting, bloody vomiting.
This is a reflex act, characterized by the release of the contents of the stomach and duodenum (less commonly) through the mouth. It happens with infection (parvovirus, coronavirus, leptospirosis, plague), helminthiasis, hepatitis, allergies, a foreign body in the gastrointestinal tract, uremia. Dangerous constant vomiting with parvovirus, helminths, infectious hepatitis. One-time vomiting with motion sickness, overeating is not dangerous.
Vomiting with blood occurs with parvovirus enteritis, helminths, leptospirosis, poisoning (poisons from rodents), stomach ulcers, when taking aspirin, butadione, indomethacin, brufen, and tumors. In dogs, more often: parvovirus, poisoning, immediate hypersensitivity.
Skin diseases in dogs
They occur when external and internal factors are exposed to the dermis, with diseases of organs and systems.
Characterized by thickening of the skin on the nasal mirror in a dog. Causes: plague, autoimmune diseases, HRT, lack of H, A vitamins, zinc, demodicosis, epitheliotropic viruses.
It manifests itself as an irresistible desire of the pet to comb itchy areas. Reason: release of histamine and histamine-like substances, irritation of nerve endings. It happens with otodectosis, sarcoptic mange, external parasites, insect bites, mycoses, eczema. It is observed with flea and tick bites, atopy, eczema.
Partial or complete hair loss, congenital alopecia, baldness due to shedding or after childbirth. It is often accompanied by itching. Reasons: pathology of skin follicles, dermatomycosis, eczema, pyoderma, stress, scabies, etc. In dogs, it is more common with atopy, with external parasites.
The cyanosis of the mucous membranes indicates an increase in the concentration of reduced hemoglobin in the blood. Reasons: poor blood supply and insufficient ventilation of the lungs, impaired venous outflow, poisoning with poisons (nitrates, nitrites).
The forms of a rash on the skin include a spot, a blister, a blister, a vesicle, an abscess, a nodule, a node. Causes: plague, tuberculosis, strepto-staphylococcus, leptospirosis, helminthiasis, eczema.
It happens with an increase in bilirubin in the blood, characterized by staining of the skin, mucous membranes, sclera yellow. Causes: piroplasmosis, infectious hepatitis, leptospirosis, cirrhosis, cholelithiasis.
Symptom of diseases of the urinary system
Indicate the appearance of calculi (urolithiasis in dogs), trauma, systemic, hereditary anomalies or infectious pathologies.
- Blood in the urine.
It is characterized by the presence of red blood cells in the urine, hemoglobin (hemoglobinuria). The latter develops with piroplasmosis, sepsis, leptospirosis, poisoning. Blood in the urine appears in trauma, kidney and urinary tract diseases, in violation of blood coagulation. Heavy bleeding is indicated by blood clots in the urine. It is important to distinguish between hematuria, urethrorrhagia and vaginal bleeding.
Frequent, difficult urination with pain. Allocation of urine takes place in small portions, drip. Causes: urethritis, prostatitis, vaginitis, tumors of the genitourinary organs in dogs.
- Urinary incontinence.
In dogs, it is interpreted as an involuntary emission of urine due to pathologies of the central nervous system, overexcitation, overflow of urea. In case of damage to the head and spinal centers, kidney stones, bladder, urethra, with cystitis.
- Polydipsia, polyuria.
Thirst and excessive urination, usually these two symptoms are related. There is a reduced density of urine, the color of the urine is pale. Causes: nephrosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus, glomerulonephritis, pyometra, poisoning. In older dogs, the syndrome is associated with diabetes.
- Oliguria, anuria.
A decrease in the volume of excreted urine (renal, extrarenal) – oliguria. Anuria is understood as the complete cessation of the formation and flow of urine into the bladder. Symptoms are typical for acute renal failure, the situation requires immediate attention. Causes: parvovirus, leptospirosis, poisoning, thrombosis, renal vascular embolism, collapse, shock, etc.
Diseases of the central nervous system
Nervous system pathologies develop as a response to injuries, infections, hereditary diseases, stresses, attacks of skin parasites, and external factors.
It is necessary to distinguish between defensive behavior and aggression associated with diseases. Causes: Aujeszky’s disease, rabies, encephalitis, plague (nervous form), tumors and brain hypoxia, endocrine pathologies.
Anxiety, irritability, increased motor activity, muscle tremors are possible. Dogs often have an emotional state, but sometimes associated with tetany of bitches, epilepsy, the presence of ectoparasites, poisoning, helminthiases.
- Paresis and paralysis of the paws.
Partial or complete cessation of movements of peripheral limbs, decrease or increase in the sensitivity of the skin and muscles. Causes: plague, rabies, meningitis, trauma, sciatica.
- Coma, fainting.
Short or long-term loss of consciousness due to cerebral ischemia or depression of the central nervous system. Sometimes they are accompanied by seizures. Causes: heart disease, lung disease, profuse blood loss, poisoning with antispasmodics, diuretics. Injuries, strokes, encephalitis, hyperglycemia provoke coma.
Involuntary muscle contraction in dogs is in the form of convulsions, tonic, clonic seizures, epileptic seizures. Causes: infections, plague, rabies, tetanus, invasions, edema and cerebral hemorrhage, tumors. In dogs, seizures are associated with epilepsy, hypoxia, and internal parasites.
Diseases of dogs: their signs and treatment
The article lists a small percentage of diseases and their symptoms that occur in dogs. The following may be mentioned:
Vaginal bleeding in bitches.
Hemorrhagic diathesis (multiple bleeding).
Adynamia, ataxia (movement disorder).
Increase or decrease in body temperature.
Swollen lymph nodes.
Swelling of the joints.
An increase in the volume of the abdomen.
You can’t ignore the slightest change in your pet’s behavior. The first symptoms of dog diseases are “bells” for the breeder, saying that not everything is in order with the animal and it is necessary to tune in to help.